List the four phases of bacterial growth and briefly describe what happens in each phase.

Week 1 Cell DivisionTemplateExamine cell division in bacteria to determine how itrelates to growth.Complete Appendix A to explain the following in your ownwords:The phases of growth in a bacterial cultureMethods used to measure bacterial growthPhysical and nutritional factors affecting bacterial growthThe processes of sporulationThe function of bacterial endosporesUniversity of Phoenix MaterialAppendix A Cell Division in BacteriaAfter reading Ch. 6 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations,fill in the following matrix.List the four phases of bacterial growth and brieflydescribe what happens in each phase.List and describe at least four methods used to measurebacterial growth.List at least two physical factors that influence bacterialcell growth. Briefly describe how bacterial growth responds to changes in thosefactors.List at least two nutritional factors that influencebacterial cell growth. Briefly describe how bacterial growth responds tochanges in those factors.List and describe at least two events that occur during theprocess of endospore formation (sporulation).Note: Visit Chapter 6 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view the Endospore Formation Animation found underthe Animated Concepts Section.
Week 1 Staining Laband QuizReview Ch. 3 of Microbiology.Review Staining Bacteria: The Gram Stain simulation.Complete the open book quiz. The quiz will be provided byyour instructor.
Week 1 IdentifyingBacteriaReview Figure 6.25 and Table 9.5 of Microbiology.Complete Appendix B to classify bacteria and identify astrain of bacteria responsible for a simulated food poisoning outbreak.What is the function of a bacterial endospore? Explain inyour own words.2008 University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Week 2 ParasitologyMatrixComplete Appendix C to differentiate among parasites, fungi,helminths, and arthropods.University of Phoenix MaterialAppendix C ParasitologyAfter reading Ch. 11 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations,complete the following matrices to compare and contrast different parasiticorganisms. You may need to use the index to help you locate some of theinformation needed.PROTOZOA/MASTIGOPHORANSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationTrypanosoma (Ch. 24) Nervoussystem Tsetse flyGiardia(Ch. 22) Ingestionof fecal matter that contains motile trophozoites WorldwideTrichomonas(Ch. 20) Vaginalinflammation WorldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any othersection in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that makedisease transmission successfulSPOROZOANSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationPlasmodium (Ch. 11 & 23) Redblood cells TropicalareasToxoplasma gondii(Ch. 23) ToxoplasmosisWorldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any othersection in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors thatmake disease transmission successful:FUNGIOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationCandida albicans(Ch. 19) Canbe sexually transmittted WorldwideTrichophyton(Ch. 19) Poorhygiene or suppressed immune system WorldwideHistoplasma(Ch. 21) Inhalation Central and eastern United Statesand major river valleys worldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any othersection in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors thatmake disease transmission successful:HELMINTHS/FLUKESOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationSchistoma japonicum(Ch. 23) Lungs,liver, and urinary bladder WorldwideDescribe the disease caused by Schistoma japonicum, thencompare similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of theorganism in this section with any other organism in any other section in thisdocument. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make diseasetransmission successful:TAPEWORMSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic locationTaenia saginata (Ch. 22) Tapewormdisease UncookedbeefDescribe the disease caused by Taenia saginata, then comparesimilarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the organismin this section with any other organism in any other section in this document.Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease transmissionsuccessful:ADULT ROUNDWORMSOrganism CommonName Location in host Mode of transmission Geographic locationWucheria bancrofti (Ch. 23) Mosquitoes Tropical areasDescribe the disease caused by Wucheria bancrofti, thencompare similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of theorganism in this section with any other organism in any other section in thisdocument. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make diseasetransmission successful:ROUNDWORM LARVAEOrganism CommonName Symptoms in host Mode of transmission Geographic locationBorrelia burgdoreri (Ch. 23)Skin lesions and flu-like symptoms, later arthritis andheart damageTicks Parts of the United States, Australia, andEuropeRickettsia rickettsii (Ch. 23) Fever, headache, rashRickettsia prowazekii (Ch. 23) Lice WorldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any other sectionin this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that makedisease transmission successful:ANTHROPODS/ARACHNIDSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationTrichinella spiralis (Ch. 22) Larvae in striated muscle WorldwideDescribe the disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, thencompare similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of theorganism in this section with any other organism in any other section in thisdocument. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make diseasetransmission successful:
Week 2 EpidemiologyPresentationDefine epidemiology, in your assigned Learning Team,explaining its purpose and methods of study.Select an emergent disease to research.Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentationthat includes the following details within speakers notes:An explanation of the purpose and methods of study forepidemiologyA thorough description of the selected infectious agentIncubation periodSigns and symptomsRelated diagnostic testsPrecautions that should be taken against theA summary slide
Week 3 Virus MatrixWatch the Viruses animation.Describe the characteristics of viruses by filling out thematrix in Appendix D.University of Phoenix MaterialAppendix D – VirusesReview Chapter 10 of Microbiology: Principles andExploration and the following Virus Animation to help you complete the matrixbelow.http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/black/0471420840/animations/ch10/ch10_Viruses/index.htmlReview Figure 10.1 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations. Determine what the functions of the following components are:Component FunctionCapsidEnvelopeNucleic acidSpikes (glycoproteins)Respond to Critical Thinking Question 1 in Ch. 10 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that follows.Using two or three sentences, explain in your own words howviruses are classified by type of nucleic acid, capsid shape, and presence ofenvelope.ExplanationNucleic acidCapsid shapePresence of envelopeReview Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.Briefly describe each of the stages of viral reproduction.Stage DescriptionAbsorptionPenetrationSynthesisMaturationReleaseRespond to the following question from Ch. 10 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that follows. Looking atthe five steps in viral replication, can you identify some promising ways toprevent or control viral infections?Respond to the following question from Ch. 10 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that follows. Would youclassify viruses as living, nonliving, or semiliving? Explain your answer.Review Table 10.7 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations. Define the following types of viruses and viruslike agents.Virus/Viruslike agent DefinitionSatellitesViroidsPrionsRespond to the following questions in the space thatfollows. Can viruses cause cancer? Does it matter if the virus is composed ofDNA or RNA? Explain your answers.
Week 4 InnateDefenses MatrixComplete the matrix in Appendix E to contrast types ofinnate host defenses. Be sure to include specific information about how eachcan affect the human body.University of Phoenix MaterialAppendix E Innate DefensesPart One and Part Two focus on various types of innatedefenses against infection. Use Ch. 16 in your text to help you complete bothparts.PART ONE: PUNCTURE WOUND MULTIMEDIA ACTIVITYAfter completing the Inflammatory Response multimediaactivity located athttp://corptrain.phoenix.edu/hhs/SCI250/innate_defenses.htmlcomplete the table below. List the four events of theinflammatory response covered in the activity in the correct order ofoccurrence. As you re-write the events in your own words, add more detail anduse terms from Ch.16 of the text.EVENTS IN AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSEEvent Description ofevent (from activity) Detaileddescription of event1st Type firstevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your own words, usinggreater detail and terms from Ch. 16.2nd Type secondevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your ownwords, using greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.3rd Type thirdevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your own words, usinggreater detail and terms from Ch. 16.4th Type fourthevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your ownwords, using greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.PART TWO: TYPES OF INNATE DEFENSESThe table presents various innate, nonspecific immuneresponses to pathogen exposure. Use Ch. 16 to help you identify and describethe type of defense in the Event column.Event Type of InnateDefense What is happeningin the body during the defense?It is a very windy day, and you have inhaled all kinds ofparticles from dust to potentially harmful pathogens but a quick sneezeprevents you from coming down with an illness. PhysicalBarrier The nose contains mucous, whichhelps to flush out microbes and particles when a person sneezes.A man at a restaurant ingests food contaminated withmicrobes that could potentially cause disease. The microbes do not survive verylong in his stomach, so he does not get sick.A child gets a small cut on her foot while running barefooton the beach. The wound becomes slightly red and swollen. Her wound does notget infected, but it hurts a little, and it feels a bit warm.Yesterday, you suspected you might be getting sick. Today,you feel very tired. When you take your temperature, the thermometer reads100.2F.Flesh-eating bacteria are present on your leg. You do nothave any wounds, so you do not become infected in spite of exposure.Your teenage brother has developed a zit on his forehead.(Hint: Identify two types of defenses, since infection has occurred.)
Week 4 ImmunityActivityUsing the template in Appendix F define the following inyour own words:The difference between adaptive and innate immunityThe difference between cellular and humoral immunityThe factors that stimulate an immune responseThe difference between active and passive immunizationsUniversity of Phoenix MaterialAppendix F Immunity ActivityAfter reading Ch. 16-18 in Microbiology: Principles andExplorations, fill in the following matrix.Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between active andpassive immunity. Give examples of each.Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between innate andacquired immunity. Give examples of each.Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between cellular andhumoral immunity.In your own words, briefly explain what happens in a primaryimmune response. Be sure to incorporate the following terms into yourexplanation: antigen, B-cell, antibody, plasma, and memory cell.In your own words, briefly explain what happens in asecondary immune response. Incorporate the following terms in your explanation:memory cell and antibodies.In your own words, briefly explain why a secondary immuneresponse is much faster than a primary immune response.In your own words, briefly explain what the difference isbetween active and passive immunization. Incorporate the following terms inyour answer: vaccine, antigen, attenuated, primary immune response, antibodies,serum, and immediate immunity.Answer the following Checklist Question from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: What are some hazards of vaccines?Respond to the following question from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: If you were born without T cells,would you have normal B cell functioning? Why or why not?
Week 5 IntegumentarySystem Lab and QuizComplete the Integumentary System Lab.Complete the open book quiz about diseases of theintegumentary system. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.University of Phoenix MaterialIntegumentary System Lab Week FiveINTRODUCTIONThe integumentary system consists of skin, hair, nails, andnerves. As you learn about the various diseases that affect the integumentarysystem, it is important for you to understand the structures that can beaffected by disease. Complete this lab to become familiar with a healthy systemand to identify diseases related to the skin.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy integumentary system.Refer to Ch. 19 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. How doesthe integumentary system prevent disease?2. How dosweat, sebaceous (oil), and mucus secretions help prevent disease?3. Whichtypes of bacteria are considered normal skin microflora?4. Suppose asample of bacteria was taken from your skin. If you were to perform a Gramstain on the sample, what is the likely Gram reaction positive or negative?Explain your answer.PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESIdentify the selected integumentary system structures in thefollowing diagram:PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYAccess the Public Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index on theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention website athttp://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/. Research one microbe-related skindisease (excluding sexually transmitted diseases) and complete the followingactivity.Read the information on the CDC site and provide a brief,one- to two-paragraph summary of the skin condition. Include the following inyour description:The skinconditionThemicrobe causing the conditionWhichstructures of the integumentary system are affectedUse one or more structuresincluded in Part Two.Who is atriskHowserious the disease is[Type your paragraph in the space below]
Week 5 STDInformational Pamphlet Appendix GResources: An information pamphlet from a doctors officeand Appendix GCreate a tri-fold pamphlet, such as one you would find at adoctors office, about a sexually transmitted disease of your choice using thetemplate provided in Appendix G located on the student website.Address each of the elements in the grading form provided inthe document titled Appendix G Rubric located on the student website, andanswer the following questions:Is the disease transmitted exclusively through sexualcontact or can it be spread nonsexually?What are its symptoms, and how can it can be diagnosed? (Besure to compare a healthy system to one affected by the infection or disease.)What epidemiological and clinical impact does the disease orinfection have?How can the infection or disease be prevented?Note. Feel free to modify the template by changing fontsizes and colors and adding graphics or pictures. If, however, you use graphicsor pictures, please be sure to cite their sources according to APA standards.Formatting help is available at http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/default.aspx
Week 6 RespiratorySystem Lab and QuizComplete the Respiratory System Lab.Complete the open-book quiz about the respiratory system andassociated diseases. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.University of Phoenix MaterialRespiratory System Lab Week SixINTRODUCTIONThe respiratory system consists of the upper respiratorytract (the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi) and the lowerrespiratory tract (the lungs). As you learn about the various diseases thataffect the respiratory system, it is important for you to understand thestructures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to becomefamiliar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to both theupper and lower respiratory tracts.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy respiratory system. Referto Ch. 21 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. How dobody reflexes like coughing and sneezing help prevent or fight infection?2. What roledo cilia play in maintaining a healthy respiratory system?3. Comparenormal microflora of the upper respiratory tract with normal microflora of thelower respiratory tract.PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESVisit Chapter 21 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth presentation of a healthyrespiratory system by completing the following steps:Selectthe Chapter 21 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.Locatethe heading Chapter Review.Selectthe Anatomy Overview: The Respiratory System link.Completethis lab as you explore the Respiratory System multimedia piece.OverviewRoll over each component of the Conducting and Respiratoryportions of the Respiratory System multimedia piece. Take note of how thepreserved trachea and lung photograph on the left compares to the illustrateddiagram on the right.Upper Respiratory System (Conducting Portion: Nasal Cavity)Roll over and click either the nasal cavity or pharynxcomponents of the Conducting portion of the Respiratory System multimedia pieceto navigate to the Nasal Cavity. Refer to Nasal Cavity component of themultimedia piece and Ch. 21, Figure 21.8 in Microbiology: Principles andExplorations to label the structures in the following diagram of a healthyupper respiratory system.Lower Respiratory System (Respiratory Portion: Lungs)Click the icon in the upper left corner of the Nasal Cavitydiagram to return to the main menu in the Respiratory System multimedia piece.Click the lungs component of the Respiratory Portion to navigate to the Lungdiagram. Refer to Lung diagram of the multimedia piece and Ch. 21, Figure 21.1in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations to label the structures in thefollowing diagrams of a healthy lower respiratory system. Please note: Thefirst diagram that follows is found only in Ch. 21, Figure 21.1, and not in theLung component of the multimedia piece.PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYVisit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessthe Public Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index athttp://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ Scroll down to the section titled TopRequested Diseases & Conditions. Review the list of diseases about that thegeneral public is most frequently requesting information about. You will noticesome familiar diseases from your assigned readings. Click on at least onemicrobe-related respiratory system disease and complete the following activity.Read the information on the CDC site and provide a brief,1-2 paragraph summary of the respiratory illness. Include in your description:Therespiratory illnessThemicrobe causing the illnessWhichstructures of the respiratory system are affectedUse one or more structuresincluded in Part Two.Who is atriskHowserious the disease is[Type your paragraph in the space below]
Week 6 CardiovascularSystem Lab and QuizUniversity of Phoenix MaterialCardiovascular System Lab Week SixINTRODUCTIONThe cardiovascular system consists of blood, blood vessels,and the heart. As you learn about the various diseases that affect thecardiovascular system, it is important for you to understand the structuresthat can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to become familiar with ahealthy system and to identify diseases related to this system.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy cardiovascular system.Refer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. What arethe main functions of the cardiovascular system?2. Whichtypes of bacteria are considered normal cardiovascular system microflora?3. Whichstructure of the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to bacterialinfection?PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESRefer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorationsto help you identify the selected cardiovascular system structures in thefollowing diagram.Visit Chapter 23 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth presentation of a healthycardiovascular system by completing the following steps:Selectthe Chapter 23 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.Locatethe heading Chapter Review.Selectthe Anatomy Overview: The Cardiovascular System link.Completethis lab as you explore the Cardiovascular System multimedia piece.Cardiovascular System: The HeartRoll over each component of the Cardiovascular Systemmultimedia piece. Roll over and click the heart. Refer to the Heart componentof the multimedia piece and Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorationsto label the structures in the following diagrams of a healthy cardiovascularsystem.PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYSelect one of the following diseases related to thecardiovascular system, discussed in Ch. 23 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations:RheumaticfeverBacterialendocarditisDescribe the causal agent of the selected disease, mode oftransmission, disease characteristics, and the component(s) of thecardiovascular system that are damaged by the disease.
Week 7 Nervous SystemLab and QuizComplete the Nervous System Lab.Complete the open-book quiz about the nervous system andassociated diseases. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.University of Phoenix MaterialNervous System Lab Week SevenINTRODUCTIONThe nervous system has two components: the central nervoussystem, which consists of the brain and spinal chord; and the peripheralnervous system, which is composed of nerves. As you learn about the variousdiseases that affect the nervous system, it is important for you to understandthe structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to becomefamiliar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to the brain,spinal chord, and nerves.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy nervous system. Refer toCh. 24 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. How dothe meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) function together in a healthynervous system; what are their roles?2. What isthe blood-brain barrier?3. Whatnormal microflora reside in the nervous system?PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESVisit Chapter 24 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth presentation of a healthy nervoussystem by completing the following steps:Selectthe Chapter 24 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.Locatethe heading Chapter Review.Selectthe Anatomy Overview: The Nervous System link.Completethis lab as you explore the Nervous System multimedia piece.Nervous System: The BrainRoll over each component of the Nervous System multimediapiece. Click on the brain. Refer to the Brain component of the multimedia pieceto label the structures in the following diagram of a healthy brain.Nervous System: The Spinal CordClick the icon in the upper left corner of the Brain diagramto return to the main menu in the Nervous System multimedia piece. Click theSpinal Cord component to navigate to the Spinal Cord diagram. Refer to theSpinal Cord diagram of the multimedia piece to label the following structuresof a healthy spinal cord.PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYSeveral different pathogenic bacteria can cause bacterialmeningitis, an infection and inflammation of the meninges. Select any form ofbacterial meningitis discussed in Ch. 24 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations, and answer the following:1. Whichform of bacterial meningitis did you select and what is its causal agent?2. Whatsymptoms are typical of this form of meningitis?3. Which agegroup or population is most susceptible to this form of meningitis and dotypical activities within that age group have any influence on a personcontracting the disease?
SCI250 Week 7 Final Examination Test Bank
Section: Multiple Choice
1.Which of the following is NOT trueof microorganisms?
They produce antibiotics.They are used in the production of many types of foodand beverages.They decompose dead animals.They all cause disease in humans.
2.Which of the following is NOT one ofthe phases of bacterial growth?
lag phasestationary phasedoubling phaselog phase
3.Which of the following is NOT adifferential stain?
Gram stainSchaeffer-Fultonacid-fast stainflagellar stain
4.In a properly executed Gram stain,Gram positive organisms appear ______ while Gram negative organisms appear______
pink, clear.pink, purple.purple, pink.purple, blue.
5.Classification is necessary to_________
establish criteria for identifying organisms.arrange related organisms into groups.provide information about how organisms evolved.All of the above
6.An organism that lives at theexpense of another organism is a ________
host.commensal.parasite.symbiont.
7.Undercooked pork is most likely topass along ________
Schistosoma.Tania.Wuchereria.Trichinella.
8.Arthropods are responsible fortransmitting _____ pathogens.
viralbacterialprotozoanviral, bacterial, and protozoan
9.Symbiosis is an association between________
two or more species.one or two species.two or more hosts.no species but all hosts.all species but not hosts.
10. All of the following are true of the relationship betweenmicroorganisms and diseases EXCEPT:
Sickle cell anemia patients are resistant to malaria.Bacterial infections can lead to endocarditis.Viral infections invariably lead to nutritionaldeficiency.Infections in the brain can result in mental disease.
11. Which of the following represents the correct order of stepsin a typical viruses replication cycle?
Maturation, adsorption, penetration, releaseAdsorption, penetration, release, maturationAdsorption, penetration, synthesis, maturationAdsorption, penetration, maturation, synthesis
12. What special group of chemical substances are used to treatdiseases by microbes?
AntibioticsSynthetic drugsSemi-synthetic drugsAntimicrobial agentsChemotherapeutic agents
13. Which of the following is NOT considered a mode of action byantimicrobial agents?
Action as an antimetaboliteInhibition of protein synthesisInhibition of cell wall sysnthesisInhibition of membrane permeabilityDisruption of selective toxicity
14. All of the following characteristics are components ofnonspecific host defenses EXCEPT:
FeverMucusAntibodiesInterferonInflammation
15. What name is given to a substance that is recognized by thebody as foreign and normally produces an immune response?
AntibodyAntigenAgglutininAntitoxinApoptosis
16. There are a number of different species that can live on theskin as resident microflora. Which of the following is NOT considered residentmicroflora of the skin?
StaphylococcusCorynebacteriumE. coliDemodexAll of the above
17. Defense mechanisms in the urogenital system are numerous andinclude ________
normal flora compete with opportunists.sphincter muscles.flushing action of fluids.low pH.All of the above
18. Food poisoning can be caused by a variety of microbes. Whichof the following pairs is incorrect?
Clostridium botulinum enterotoxin which is heatliableStaphylococcus aureus enterotoxin which is heatstablePseudomonas cocovenenans bongkrek diseaseBacillus cereus toxin is an emeticClostridium perfringens enterotoxin and woundinfection
19. The upper respiratory tract consists of the ________
pharynx.nasal cavity.bronchi.All of the aboveOnly A and B
20. Group B Streptococcal disease include ________
early onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis.late onset neonatal meningitis.etiology is Streptococcus agalactiae.All of the aboveOnly A and C
Week 1 Cell DivisionTemplateExamine cell division in bacteria to determine how itrelates to growth.Complete Appendix A to explain the following in your ownwords:The phases of growth in a bacterial cultureMethods used to measure bacterial growthPhysical and nutritional factors affecting bacterial growthThe processes of sporulationThe function of bacterial endosporesUniversity of Phoenix MaterialAppendix A Cell Division in BacteriaAfter reading Ch. 6 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations,fill in the following matrix.List the four phases of bacterial growth and brieflydescribe what happens in each phase.List and describe at least four methods used to measurebacterial growth.List at least two physical factors that influence bacterialcell growth. Briefly describe how bacterial growth responds to changes in thosefactors.List at least two nutritional factors that influencebacterial cell growth. Briefly describe how bacterial growth responds tochanges in those factors.List and describe at least two events that occur during theprocess of endospore formation (sporulation).Note: Visit Chapter 6 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view the Endospore Formation Animation found underthe Animated Concepts Section.Week 1 Staining Laband QuizReview Ch. 3 of Microbiology.Review Staining Bacteria: The Gram Stain simulation.Complete the open book quiz. The quiz will be provided byyour instructor.Week 1 IdentifyingBacteriaReview Figure 6.25 and Table 9.5 of Microbiology.Complete Appendix B to classify bacteria and identify astrain of bacteria responsible for a simulated food poisoning outbreak.What is the function of a bacterial endospore? Explain inyour own words.2008 University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.Week 2 ParasitologyMatrixComplete Appendix C to differentiate among parasites, fungi,helminths, and arthropods.University of Phoenix MaterialAppendix C ParasitologyAfter reading Ch. 11 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations,complete the following matrices to compare and contrast different parasiticorganisms. You may need to use the index to help you locate some of theinformation needed.PROTOZOA/MASTIGOPHORANSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationTrypanosoma (Ch. 24) Nervoussystem Tsetse fly Giardia (Ch. 22) Ingestionof fecal matter that contains motile trophozoites WorldwideTrichomonas(Ch. 20) Vaginalinflammation WorldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any othersection in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that makedisease transmission successfulSPOROZOANSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationPlasmodium (Ch. 11 & 23) Redblood cells TropicalareasToxoplasma gondii(Ch. 23) ToxoplasmosisWorldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any othersection in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors thatmake disease transmission successful:FUNGIOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationCandida albicans(Ch. 19) Canbe sexually transmittted WorldwideTrichophyton(Ch. 19) Poorhygiene or suppressed immune system WorldwideHistoplasma(Ch. 21) Inhalation Central and eastern United Statesand major river valleys worldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any othersection in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors thatmake disease transmission successful:HELMINTHS/FLUKESOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationSchistoma japonicum(Ch. 23) Lungs,liver, and urinary bladder WorldwideDescribe the disease caused by Schistoma japonicum, thencompare similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of theorganism in this section with any other organism in any other section in thisdocument. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make diseasetransmission successful:TAPEWORMSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic locationTaenia saginata (Ch. 22) Tapewormdisease Uncookedbeef Describe the disease caused by Taenia saginata, then comparesimilarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the organismin this section with any other organism in any other section in this document.Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease transmissionsuccessful:ADULT ROUNDWORMSOrganism CommonName Location in host Mode of transmission Geographic locationWucheria bancrofti (Ch. 23) Mosquitoes Tropical areasDescribe the disease caused by Wucheria bancrofti, thencompare similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of theorganism in this section with any other organism in any other section in thisdocument. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make diseasetransmission successful:ROUNDWORM LARVAEOrganism CommonName Symptoms in host Mode of transmission Geographic locationBorrelia burgdoreri (Ch. 23) Skin lesions and flu-like symptoms, later arthritis andheart damage Ticks Parts of the United States, Australia, andEuropeRickettsia rickettsii (Ch. 23) Fever, headache, rash Rickettsia prowazekii (Ch. 23) Lice WorldwideSelect one of the organisms in this section. Describe thedisease it causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modesof transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any other sectionin this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that makedisease transmission successful:ANTHROPODS/ARACHNIDSOrganism CommonName Location in Host Mode of Transmission Geographic LocationTrichinella spiralis (Ch. 22) Larvae in striated muscle WorldwideDescribe the disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, thencompare similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of theorganism in this section with any other organism in any other section in thisdocument. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make diseasetransmission successful:Week 2 EpidemiologyPresentationDefine epidemiology, in your assigned Learning Team,explaining its purpose and methods of study.Select an emergent disease to research.Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentationthat includes the following details within speakers notes:An explanation of the purpose and methods of study forepidemiologyA thorough description of the selected infectious agentIncubation periodSigns and symptomsRelated diagnostic testsPrecautions that should be taken against theA summary slideWeek 3 Virus MatrixWatch the Viruses animation.Describe the characteristics of viruses by filling out thematrix in Appendix D.University of Phoenix MaterialAppendix D – VirusesReview Chapter 10 of Microbiology: Principles andExploration and the following Virus Animation to help you complete the matrixbelow.http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/black/0471420840/animations/ch10/ch10_Viruses/index.htmlReview Figure 10.1 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations. Determine what the functions of the following components are:Component FunctionCapsid Envelope Nucleic acid Spikes (glycoproteins) Respond to Critical Thinking Question 1 in Ch. 10 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that follows.Using two or three sentences, explain in your own words howviruses are classified by type of nucleic acid, capsid shape, and presence ofenvelope. ExplanationNucleic acid Capsid shape Presence of envelope Review Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.Briefly describe each of the stages of viral reproduction.Stage DescriptionAbsorption Penetration Synthesis Maturation Release Respond to the following question from Ch. 10 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that follows. Looking atthe five steps in viral replication, can you identify some promising ways toprevent or control viral infections?Respond to the following question from Ch. 10 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that follows. Would youclassify viruses as living, nonliving, or semiliving? Explain your answer.Review Table 10.7 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations. Define the following types of viruses and viruslike agents.Virus/Viruslike agent DefinitionSatellites Viroids Prions Respond to the following questions in the space thatfollows. Can viruses cause cancer? Does it matter if the virus is composed ofDNA or RNA? Explain your answers.Week 4 InnateDefenses MatrixComplete the matrix in Appendix E to contrast types ofinnate host defenses. Be sure to include specific information about how eachcan affect the human body.University of Phoenix MaterialAppendix E Innate DefensesPart One and Part Two focus on various types of innatedefenses against infection. Use Ch. 16 in your text to help you complete bothparts.PART ONE: PUNCTURE WOUND MULTIMEDIA ACTIVITYAfter completing the Inflammatory Response multimediaactivity located athttp://corptrain.phoenix.edu/hhs/SCI250/innate_defenses.htmlcomplete the table below. List the four events of theinflammatory response covered in the activity in the correct order ofoccurrence. As you re-write the events in your own words, add more detail anduse terms from Ch.16 of the text.EVENTS IN AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSEEvent Description ofevent (from activity) Detaileddescription of event 1st Type firstevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your own words, usinggreater detail and terms from Ch. 16.2nd Type secondevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your ownwords, using greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.3rd Type thirdevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your own words, usinggreater detail and terms from Ch. 16.4th Type fourthevent here. Copy this word-for-word from the multimedia activity. Rephrase the event in your ownwords, using greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.PART TWO: TYPES OF INNATE DEFENSESThe table presents various innate, nonspecific immuneresponses to pathogen exposure. Use Ch. 16 to help you identify and describethe type of defense in the Event column.Event Type of InnateDefense What is happeningin the body during the defense?It is a very windy day, and you have inhaled all kinds ofparticles from dust to potentially harmful pathogens but a quick sneezeprevents you from coming down with an illness. PhysicalBarrier The nose contains mucous, whichhelps to flush out microbes and particles when a person sneezes.A man at a restaurant ingests food contaminated withmicrobes that could potentially cause disease. The microbes do not survive verylong in his stomach, so he does not get sick. A child gets a small cut on her foot while running barefooton the beach. The wound becomes slightly red and swollen. Her wound does notget infected, but it hurts a little, and it feels a bit warm. Yesterday, you suspected you might be getting sick. Today,you feel very tired. When you take your temperature, the thermometer reads100.2F. Flesh-eating bacteria are present on your leg. You do nothave any wounds, so you do not become infected in spite of exposure. Your teenage brother has developed a zit on his forehead.(Hint: Identify two types of defenses, since infection has occurred.) Week 4 ImmunityActivityUsing the template in Appendix F define the following inyour own words:The difference between adaptive and innate immunityThe difference between cellular and humoral immunityThe factors that stimulate an immune responseThe difference between active and passive immunizationsUniversity of Phoenix MaterialAppendix F Immunity ActivityAfter reading Ch. 16-18 in Microbiology: Principles andExplorations, fill in the following matrix.Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between active andpassive immunity. Give examples of each.Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between innate andacquired immunity. Give examples of each.Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between cellular andhumoral immunity.In your own words, briefly explain what happens in a primaryimmune response. Be sure to incorporate the following terms into yourexplanation: antigen, B-cell, antibody, plasma, and memory cell.In your own words, briefly explain what happens in asecondary immune response. Incorporate the following terms in your explanation:memory cell and antibodies.In your own words, briefly explain why a secondary immuneresponse is much faster than a primary immune response.In your own words, briefly explain what the difference isbetween active and passive immunization. Incorporate the following terms inyour answer: vaccine, antigen, attenuated, primary immune response, antibodies,serum, and immediate immunity.Answer the following Checklist Question from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: What are some hazards of vaccines?Respond to the following question from Ch. 17 ofMicrobiology: Principles and Explorations: If you were born without T cells,would you have normal B cell functioning? Why or why not?Week 5 IntegumentarySystem Lab and QuizComplete the Integumentary System Lab.Complete the open book quiz about diseases of theintegumentary system. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.University of Phoenix MaterialIntegumentary System Lab Week FiveINTRODUCTIONThe integumentary system consists of skin, hair, nails, andnerves. As you learn about the various diseases that affect the integumentarysystem, it is important for you to understand the structures that can beaffected by disease. Complete this lab to become familiar with a healthy systemand to identify diseases related to the skin.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy integumentary system.Refer to Ch. 19 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. How doesthe integumentary system prevent disease?2. How dosweat, sebaceous (oil), and mucus secretions help prevent disease?3. Whichtypes of bacteria are considered normal skin microflora?4. Suppose asample of bacteria was taken from your skin. If you were to perform a Gramstain on the sample, what is the likely Gram reaction positive or negative?Explain your answer.PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESIdentify the selected integumentary system structures in thefollowing diagram:PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYAccess the Public Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index on theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention website athttp://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/. Research one microbe-related skindisease (excluding sexually transmitted diseases) and complete the followingactivity.Read the information on the CDC site and provide a brief,one- to two-paragraph summary of the skin condition. Include the following inyour description: The skincondition Themicrobe causing the condition Whichstructures of the integumentary system are affectedUse one or more structuresincluded in Part Two. Who is atrisk Howserious the disease is[Type your paragraph in the space below]Week 5 STDInformational Pamphlet Appendix GResources: An information pamphlet from a doctors officeand Appendix GCreate a tri-fold pamphlet, such as one you would find at adoctors office, about a sexually transmitted disease of your choice using thetemplate provided in Appendix G located on the student website.Address each of the elements in the grading form provided inthe document titled Appendix G Rubric located on the student website, andanswer the following questions:Is the disease transmitted exclusively through sexualcontact or can it be spread nonsexually?What are its symptoms, and how can it can be diagnosed? (Besure to compare a healthy system to one affected by the infection or disease.)What epidemiological and clinical impact does the disease orinfection have?How can the infection or disease be prevented?Note. Feel free to modify the template by changing fontsizes and colors and adding graphics or pictures. If, however, you use graphicsor pictures, please be sure to cite their sources according to APA standards.Formatting help is available at http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/default.aspxWeek 6 RespiratorySystem Lab and QuizComplete the Respiratory System Lab.Complete the open-book quiz about the respiratory system andassociated diseases. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.University of Phoenix MaterialRespiratory System Lab Week SixINTRODUCTIONThe respiratory system consists of the upper respiratorytract (the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi) and the lowerrespiratory tract (the lungs). As you learn about the various diseases thataffect the respiratory system, it is important for you to understand thestructures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to becomefamiliar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to both theupper and lower respiratory tracts.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy respiratory system. Referto Ch. 21 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. How dobody reflexes like coughing and sneezing help prevent or fight infection?2. What roledo cilia play in maintaining a healthy respiratory system? 3. Comparenormal microflora of the upper respiratory tract with normal microflora of thelower respiratory tract.PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESVisit Chapter 21 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth presentation of a healthyrespiratory system by completing the following steps: Selectthe Chapter 21 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page. Locatethe heading Chapter Review. Selectthe Anatomy Overview: The Respiratory System link. Completethis lab as you explore the Respiratory System multimedia piece.OverviewRoll over each component of the Conducting and Respiratoryportions of the Respiratory System multimedia piece. Take note of how thepreserved trachea and lung photograph on the left compares to the illustrateddiagram on the right.Upper Respiratory System (Conducting Portion: Nasal Cavity)Roll over and click either the nasal cavity or pharynxcomponents of the Conducting portion of the Respiratory System multimedia pieceto navigate to the Nasal Cavity. Refer to Nasal Cavity component of themultimedia piece and Ch. 21, Figure 21.8 in Microbiology: Principles andExplorations to label the structures in the following diagram of a healthyupper respiratory system.Lower Respiratory System (Respiratory Portion: Lungs)Click the icon in the upper left corner of the Nasal Cavitydiagram to return to the main menu in the Respiratory System multimedia piece.Click the lungs component of the Respiratory Portion to navigate to the Lungdiagram. Refer to Lung diagram of the multimedia piece and Ch. 21, Figure 21.1in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations to label the structures in thefollowing diagrams of a healthy lower respiratory system. Please note: Thefirst diagram that follows is found only in Ch. 21, Figure 21.1, and not in theLung component of the multimedia piece.PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYVisit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessthe Public Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index athttp://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ Scroll down to the section titled TopRequested Diseases & Conditions. Review the list of diseases about that thegeneral public is most frequently requesting information about. You will noticesome familiar diseases from your assigned readings. Click on at least onemicrobe-related respiratory system disease and complete the following activity.Read the information on the CDC site and provide a brief,1-2 paragraph summary of the respiratory illness. Include in your description: Therespiratory illness Themicrobe causing the illness Whichstructures of the respiratory system are affectedUse one or more structuresincluded in Part Two. Who is atrisk Howserious the disease is[Type your paragraph in the space below]Week 6 CardiovascularSystem Lab and QuizUniversity of Phoenix MaterialCardiovascular System Lab Week SixINTRODUCTIONThe cardiovascular system consists of blood, blood vessels,and the heart. As you learn about the various diseases that affect thecardiovascular system, it is important for you to understand the structuresthat can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to become familiar with ahealthy system and to identify diseases related to this system.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy cardiovascular system.Refer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. What arethe main functions of the cardiovascular system?2. Whichtypes of bacteria are considered normal cardiovascular system microflora?3. Whichstructure of the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to bacterialinfection?PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESRefer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorationsto help you identify the selected cardiovascular system structures in thefollowing diagram.Visit Chapter 23 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth presentation of a healthycardiovascular system by completing the following steps: Selectthe Chapter 23 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page. Locatethe heading Chapter Review. Selectthe Anatomy Overview: The Cardiovascular System link. Completethis lab as you explore the Cardiovascular System multimedia piece.Cardiovascular System: The HeartRoll over each component of the Cardiovascular Systemmultimedia piece. Roll over and click the heart. Refer to the Heart componentof the multimedia piece and Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorationsto label the structures in the following diagrams of a healthy cardiovascularsystem.PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYSelect one of the following diseases related to thecardiovascular system, discussed in Ch. 23 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations: Rheumaticfever BacterialendocarditisDescribe the causal agent of the selected disease, mode oftransmission, disease characteristics, and the component(s) of thecardiovascular system that are damaged by the disease.Week 7 Nervous SystemLab and QuizComplete the Nervous System Lab.Complete the open-book quiz about the nervous system andassociated diseases. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.University of Phoenix MaterialNervous System Lab Week SevenINTRODUCTIONThe nervous system has two components: the central nervoussystem, which consists of the brain and spinal chord; and the peripheralnervous system, which is composed of nerves. As you learn about the variousdiseases that affect the nervous system, it is important for you to understandthe structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to becomefamiliar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to the brain,spinal chord, and nerves.PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONSProvide brief answers to the following questions to help youget acquainted with the basic functions of a healthy nervous system. Refer toCh. 24 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.1. How dothe meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) function together in a healthynervous system; what are their roles?2. What isthe blood-brain barrier? 3. Whatnormal microflora reside in the nervous system?PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURESVisit Chapter 24 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth presentation of a healthy nervoussystem by completing the following steps: Selectthe Chapter 24 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page. Locatethe heading Chapter Review. Selectthe Anatomy Overview: The Nervous System link. Completethis lab as you explore the Nervous System multimedia piece.Nervous System: The BrainRoll over each component of the Nervous System multimediapiece. Click on the brain. Refer to the Brain component of the multimedia pieceto label the structures in the following diagram of a healthy brain.Nervous System: The Spinal CordClick the icon in the upper left corner of the Brain diagramto return to the main menu in the Nervous System multimedia piece. Click theSpinal Cord component to navigate to the Spinal Cord diagram. Refer to theSpinal Cord diagram of the multimedia piece to label the following structuresof a healthy spinal cord.PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLYSeveral different pathogenic bacteria can cause bacterialmeningitis, an infection and inflammation of the meninges. Select any form ofbacterial meningitis discussed in Ch. 24 of Microbiology: Principles andExplorations, and answer the following: 1. Whichform of bacterial meningitis did you select and what is its causal agent?2. Whatsymptoms are typical of this form of meningitis?3. Which agegroup or population is most susceptible to this form of meningitis and dotypical activities within that age group have any influence on a personcontracting the disease?SCI250 Week 7 Final Examination Test BankSection: Multiple Choice1.Which of the following is NOT trueof microorganisms?2.Which of the following is NOT one ofthe phases of bacterial growth?3.Which of the following is NOT adifferential stain?4.In a properly executed Gram stain,Gram positive organisms appear ______ while Gram negative organisms appear______5.Classification is necessary to_________6.An organism that lives at theexpense of another organism is a ________7.Undercooked pork is most likely topass along ________8.Arthropods are responsible fortransmitting _____ pathogens.9.Symbiosis is an association between________10. All of the following are true of the relationship betweenmicroorganisms and diseases EXCEPT:11. Which of the following represents the correct order of stepsin a typical viruses replication cycle?12. What special group of chemical substances are used to treatdiseases by microbes?13. Which of the following is NOT considered a mode of action byantimicrobial agents?14. All of the following characteristics are components ofnonspecific host defenses EXCEPT:15. What name is given to a substance that is recognized by thebody as foreign and normally produces an immune response?16. There are a number of different species that can live on theskin as resident microflora. Which of the following is NOT considered residentmicroflora of the skin? 17. Defense mechanisms in the urogenital system are numerous andinclude ________18. Food poisoning can be caused by a variety of microbes. Whichof the following pairs is incorrect?19. The upper respiratory tract consists of the ________20. Group B Streptococcal disease include