Explain the decentralized structure of the political party system in the United States

This is a take-home, open-book exam consisting of essay questions. Please note the following instructions:
 You are only required to answer five of the essay questions listed below
 Each essay should be roughly 2 to 3 paragraphs in length. This however, is only a guideline, as I grade on content,
rather than length
 Essays should be double spaced with appropriate sized fonts
 All sources must be cited and formatted based on your choice of MLA, APA, or Chicago formats
 All essays must be saved in a single file and uploaded to the appropriate midterm dropbox
 All submissions will be processed through D2L’s plagiarism detection software
These essays will be graded in a similar manner as the written assignments. An excellent essay will demonstrate the following characteristics:
 The essay thoroughly addresses all components of the question
 The essay is focused on the topic of the question and contains few to no tangential discussions
 The essay contains a smooth and logical progression of explanations and arguments
 The overall readability of the essay is not diminished by mistakes of spelling or grammar
Identify and explain the different characteristics of ‘springboard’, ‘career’, and ‘dead-end’ legislatures.
Explain the difference between state-centered and nation-centered views of federalism.
Explain how Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) and the 16th Amendment served to increase the power and scope of the federal government.
Explain the differences between dual and cooperative conceptions of federalism. Which of these conceptions appears to be more advantageous for states, and why?
Under Article I of the Constitution, state governments have the power to set voter qualifications and regulate the time, place, and manner of elections. Identify and explain at least two examples of federal intervention to prevent such state powers being used to disenfranchise voters.
Governors have little to no formal involvement in the legislative process. What kinds of techniques, strategies, and/or informal powers can governors use to influence the legislatures in their states?
Explain the decentralized structure of the political party system in the United States. How does this decentralization affect the functioning and/or behavior of political parties?
Answer topics 2,6,5,4,3
no plagiarism!!!!!!!!